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Warning: Know Your Rights And Responsibilities as a Tenant in France

My first apartment in Paris, 2008

Outside of my first apartment in Paris, 2008

The first time you rent an apartment in Paris, you might not know what to do.

Especially if you’re rent an apartment for the first time ever.

And that’s OK.

The laws are different, and you don’t know how to protect yourself, and you’re already having a rough time finding someone, anyone in Paris who will rent an apartment to you because you don’t have a French garentor and you’re ready to take whatever you can get.

Even renting from an agency doesn’t seem to help. The housing market is tight in the fall and it’s a landlord’s market, so you’re afraid that if you insist too much that your landlord “follow the law,” you’ll never find a place to live.

Don’t worry.

Wait a minute.

Before you sign any rental contract, especially in a foreign country, it’s important to understand your rights and responsibilities when you rent an apartment in Paris.

The last thing you want is to be charged illegally for having guests or to have a long, drawn out battle because your landlord won’t give you back your security deposit after two months and you’ve left the country. Even though laws protecting tenants are very strong in France, a study published in Le Parisien in 2010 found that many student apartment leases in France had at least one illegal or abusive clause.

As in the United States, French landlords are prohibited from discriminating against potential renters based on race, national origin, religion, affiliation, and a host of other obvious qualities, but unfortunately, it’s hard to cry discrimination when there are 50 people lining up and practically begging for a place to live.

Once you do get an apartment rental contract, you’ll want to look it over and make sure it respects these 13 conditions before you sign:

  1. The right to a decent lodging: closed, covered, and in good repair.
  2. The right to use your lodging as you see fit: a landlord may not prevent you from (or charge you extra rent for) hosting a friend, for example.
  3. The landlord cannot prohibit you from having pets of any kind.
  4. The right to pay only the agreed-upon rent and utilities. The landlord is required to pay for repairs and agency fees related to the rental (this does not include the finder’s fee, usually one month’s rent).
  5. The right to have the security deposit reimbursed no more than two months after returning the keys. The landlord may deduct outstanding utilities bills, fees for necessary repairs, and taxe d’habitation (renter’s tax) from the deposit. The landlord may not include the taxes foncières (property owner’s tax) in the fees.
  6. The right to a receipt, a ‘quittance de loyer,’ for all rents paid, which cannot be billed to you.
  7. The landlord cannot require you to allow him to hold a visit (for renting or selling the lodging) on holidays, or for more than two hours on workdays.
  8. The landlord may not require you to pay the rent by automatic withdrawal on your account, and the renter may not authorize it.
  9. The landlord may not require the renter to make advanced payments for repairs before the cost is assessed by both parties.
  10. The landlord cannot cancel the lease for reasons other than non-payment of rent, a security deposit, or the non-adherence to a renter’s insurance plan.
  11. The landlord cannot automatically assume the renter is responsible for any degradation of the lodging, or automatically assess fees to renters collectively for the degradation of something in a common area.
  12. The landlord cannot require you to pay for the état des lieux, unless it is carried out by a bailiff.
  13. The lease may not contain a clause absolving the landlord from responsibility and preventing the renter from bringing him to court if necessary.
  14. The landlord may not ask for more money than what is in the contract.
What to Do If your Apartment Lease Doesn’t Respect These Conditions
What do you do if your landlord includes a clause that says you can’t have a cat, or that you have to pay €30 per night if you have friends stay over?
Since these clauses are illegal, your landlord can’t enforce them.
Don’t jeopardize signing the apartment lease by pointing this out and potentially angering your landlord. But if they come up again, you can say (politely) that the apartment is your residence and that you have the right to use it as you see fit, which includes pets and house guests.
What to Do if Your Landlord Tries to Enforce a “Clause Abusive”
Normally, if you’re in the apartment, and you point out that something your landlord wants you to do is not so legal, he won’t push the issue.
But sometimes, he’ll insist you’re wrong and try to charge you anyway or stop by unannounced for “repairs” or “visits,” or harass you with late night phone calls until you pay for that heater that went out through no fault of your own. And sometimes, he’ll keep the entire security deposit for spite, and you think you can’t do anything because you’re not in Paris anymore.
Then what do you do?
The first step is to send a lettre recommandé with avis de réception to your landlord, explaining the issue and asking him to stop. Note that you’ll contact the DALO (information below) if the issue continues, to show that you know your rights and that you’re not going down without a fight.
At the very least, this provides a record that you tried to rectify the issue and shows that you’re not going to let yourself get pushed around. In many cases, simply suggesting that you’ll follow up on the issue will get him to stop. In many cases, the landlords are counting on you not knowing what to do.
If that doesn’t work, the next step is to contact the housing mediator in the department where you live. They are a free service all over France, and the mediators have experience resolving problems between landlords and tenants. If what your landlord is doing is really illegal, they should be able to send him a letter telling him so, and usually, he’ll stop.
You’ll have to send a lettre recommandé explaining the problem, attaching a copy of your lease, and asking for an intervention. You should also include a copy of the letter you already sent to your landlord, his reply (if it was written) or a summary of it (if it was not), and a copy of the recommandé slip showing he received the letter. You’ll provide your landlord’s contact information in your letter, so they can contact him for a reply.
If he doesn’t reply, or keeps harassing you, the next step will be to ask them to escalate it, and they’ll let you know whether your claim is legitimate and how you can file a suit against him.
The suit won’t cost very much if you represent yourself, as you’ll just have to pay for a timbre fiscal to file it at the Tribunal d’Instance. The mediation office will tell you what to do.
Send your lettre recommandé to:
Droit au Logement Opposable (DALO)
Préfecture de Paris
ATTN M. Daniel CANEPA (10/2008)
5, rue Leblanc
75911 Paris CEDEX 15
If you want to walk in to talk to someone, go to:
11 rue Leblanc
75015 Paris
Open Monday – Friday, 8:30 – 5:30
Closes Fridays at 4:45.
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48 comments… add one

Leave a Comment

  • Anthony November 19, 2012, 2:41 pm

    Could you include a link to the French law which outlines the “clauses abusives”? Simply for having more weight, since the French version of the law is the one that’s surely held up in court.

  • Allison Lounes November 19, 2012, 2:42 pm

    Sure. Here’s a link to Droitissimo, a French site that shows they come from Article L 132-1 from the Code de la Consommation. To look up the actual text of the law, you would have to use a Francis Lefebvre law book, which I’ve seen in the Fnac and other bookstores.

  • Residential Tenancy Act May 24, 2013, 1:12 pm

    Hi Allison,

    Thanks for this update. Like Anthiny puts it, it would be nice if in your next post, you highllight some of the links to the French laws pertaining to tenancy.There is a growing practice by unscrupulous residential tenants to manipulate the law improperly and often dishonestly to enable them to remain in their rented premises for long periods of time without having to pay rent to their landlords

    • Allison Lounes May 28, 2013, 10:29 am

      Hi Residential Tenancy Act,

      Thanks for your comment.

      My primary concern is with housing discrimination that makes it extremely difficult for foreign students – or anyone without a French guarantor – to rent apartments when they get to France. Personally, I was only able to find an apartment because I knew a woman at a study abroad program who couldn’t fill all of her rentals from her program, and didn’t want to lose the apartment for the following year.

      It’s extremely difficult to rent if you’re not French, which allows landlords to put these ridiculous restrictions on tenants’ leases, trying to bully them into paying exorbitant rent and following really weird – and often illegal – rules.

      While I do think it’s unfortunate that certain people have manipulated the system, a post on how it’s done wouldn’t really serve the students who read my site, who just want to find a decent place to stay.

      Thanks again.

  • Nikhil Kelkar July 30, 2013, 11:49 am

    Dear Allison,

    Thanks for the information. I am in a fight with my landlord for my depot garantie. Ihe tok 2000 euros as the deposit and after etat de lieux he gave me cheque of 1500 euros which he bounced after 1 weeks and when I demande again he said the apartment has a lot of issue which is not true as he mentioned the house was in good condition during etat de lieux. I had been thru a conciliator and the owner said he will only give me 1200 euro. I want to take the landlord to tribunal now.
    I would like to know your assistance/feedback on the issue.
    Nikhil kelkar

  • Roger November 10, 2013, 2:12 am

    I’m going to write a letter to DALO as I haven’t gotten back the deposit for 6 months. Will update as to what happens.

    Thanks for the article

    • Allison Lounes November 12, 2013, 1:27 pm

      Good luck!

  • Steve January 11, 2014, 1:25 pm

    When choosing to move off campus, you should be aware of your rights as a renter under local and state laws FRENCH law. In the most basic terms, your landlord is obligated to keep your home in good repair and in compliance with all housing codes. It is also important to remember that you have certain responsibilities as a tenant, roommate, and member of the Ann Arbor community. Here are some tips : To be treated fairly and with respect, Not to be discriminated against, To have secure housing within the conditions of the Residential Tenancies Act, To fill out the condition report and return it to the landlord/agent a copy within 7 days, To pay rent on time and in accordance with the Residential Tenancies Act. Get more info at :

    ***Edits by Allison are in strikeout and bold. Obviously French law applies here, not Ann Arbor law.***

    Link relating to Michigan tenancy laws was removed for irrelevance.

    • Allison Lounes January 14, 2014, 12:36 pm

      Hi Steve,

      Thanks for your comment. I have edited it slightly, as students in France should make sure they are aware of FRENCH law. Unfortunately your link will not help them.

  • Marino February 16, 2014, 5:01 pm

    Hi Allison, thank you for taking the time to provide your advice, whilst I enjoy the “luxury” of renting an apartment in rural France so have somewhat of an advantage as a tenant, I think my question could still be relevant to others, included in my quittance de loyer is a hot/cold water and heating cost, there has been constant problems with the heating since I arrived, resulting in numerous tenant departures, Where do I stand which organisation or department can help me?

    Kind regards

    • Allison Lounes February 21, 2014, 7:44 pm

      Hi Marino,

      Thanks for your question. You should contact the Mairie of the town where you live. They should be able to point you in the right direction, and have mediators for issues between tenants and landlords.

  • Cecilia Lerario April 11, 2014, 8:25 pm

    Hi Allison,

    I rented an apartment in Paris last semester through an agence called Lodgis (which was supposed to be a trustworthy one) and now it’s been 2 months since I left the apartment and came back to my home country, but the owner has not payed me back.

    Lodgis says there is nothing they can do and I would have to hire a lawyer in France. I tried several times to contact the owner, but he doesn’t answer.

    So, I would like to ask you if can give any advice on what I should do, who I should contact.

    Thank you very much.

  • Lars September 13, 2014, 8:29 pm

    Dear Allison,
    Thanks a lot for your advice. I was wondering though whether these rules also apply if you are renting a room in a host family (not an apartment)?

    • Allison Lounes September 15, 2014, 2:20 pm

      Normally. You should still have a lease and everything. Why, what’s your host family doing?

      • CLM December 12, 2015, 6:39 pm


        Thanks for this really useful information. I would also be interested in my rights whilst renting a room in someones house. My room was found by my employer and I don’t have a written agreement.


  • sabrina January 17, 2015, 3:16 am

    Dear Allison,
    Thank you for your advice but have some question about my rental fees. I’m an international student and i going to rent a apartment room for 6 months. May i ask, is the law state that international student should pay 3months rental fee in advance?

    • Allison Lounes January 18, 2015, 10:40 pm

      No, that’s illegal. You pay 1 month rent and 1 month (without charges) as a security deposit. Anyone asking for more than that is scamming you.

      They *may* ask you to set up a blocked bank account with a larger sum, but they can’t ask you to give it to them directly.

      • sabrina January 21, 2015, 12:56 pm

        Dear Allison,
        Thank you for your reply. Now i have face a problem about the rental. I had cancel the contract and asking the owner to refund back my money but the owner said he would not refund back the full amount for me because he will deduct the money for the lawyers fee. The problem is i did not ask him to hire any lawyer and i had told him that i would not agree to pay the lawyers fee. Now, he did not reply my email. What should i do now? I am looking forward to receive your reply. Thank you.

        • Allison Lounes January 23, 2015, 1:58 pm

          I’d be happy to consult with you on this topic and see if there’s a way of getting your money back, but I can’t advise you without knowing more details. Please schedule a Pick My Brain session if you’d like further assistance.

  • Johnathan July 23, 2015, 9:42 am

    Hi Allison

    I’m an international student heading to paris for exchange; and I find myself in a similar situation to Sabrina;

    My landlord has changed the payment requirements twice now. After I paid out 1 months worth of security deposit, he asked for another month’s advance payment. I’ve paid that as well. Now he’s asking for yet another month’s advance payment, stating that its his lawyer’s advice that these are the minimum requirements for a lease agreement for renting a furnished apartment.

    Is this true? also, I’ve read online that your advance payments cannot exceed 25% of your total rental, is that true?

    • Allison Lounes July 24, 2015, 12:22 pm

      Do you have lease? Any type of written document? How did you find this place?

      I would be very wary of someone asking you for money before you even see the apartment.

      For a furnished rental, the landlord can ask for up to 3 months’ rent as a security deposit, but changing the amount multiple times and the fact that you’re not even in France yet are both huge red flags to me.

  • Paul Kennedy October 9, 2015, 7:45 pm

    Hi Allison, I found your post very informative. Myself and my wife were living outside Paris, in Arles-Provence, but are having trouble with our landlord. He is refusing to return our deposit, claiming repair costs necessary to re-rent the flat. However, the repairs he spoke of include repainting the whole flat, when in fact the paint was badly chipped when we moved on and all we did was try and cover the white marks with a similar colour. I was wondering if you had any links to the housing mediator you mentioned in the Provence area? Or any local housing association which may be of use? It is difficult now because we are back in Ireland and he is in France but we are determined not to be overcharged! Many thanks, Paul.

    • Allison Lounes October 9, 2015, 10:41 pm

      I’m pretty sure ‘repainting’ falls under regular upkeep that is the landlord’s responsibility.

      You can write a registered letter and/or contact the ADIL in your region. If you would like assistance with this, please email me and I’ll see what I can do for you.

      • Paul Kennedy October 14, 2015, 4:01 pm

        Thanks for the offer Allison. I will email you now. Your kindness and assistance are much appreciated.

        • Paul Kennedy October 14, 2015, 4:10 pm

          Hi Allison, sorry to comment again. I can’t seem to find an email address for you and the contact page seems to be geared toward advertising. Should I just fill out the advertising form? Thank you! Paul

  • Princy October 14, 2015, 1:38 am

    Hello.! I live in brest, bretagne.! My landlord is refusing to give me a quittance de loyer letter for my Caf.! I stay in another house now and when i askd her for my letter of all my months rent she stopped answering my calls or replying to my messages. I am an international student and i dont know what step do i take as its my right to take that letter and submit it for Caf .!!

    • Allison Lounes October 14, 2015, 4:16 pm

      I’m not sure I understand the question. Has your landlord ever provided you with a quittance de loyer or just not since you’ve mentioned CAF? How long have you been in your current apartment? Do you have a lease?

      The landlord is obligated by law to provide you with a quittance de loyer.

      If you like, I can give you a fee quote and help you with this situation. Otherwise, you can try contacting the CAF directly and seeing what they suggest. You can also send a registered letter to the landlord requesting quittances de loyer and reminding them of the legal requirement.

      Please email me at allison (at) if you would like me to help you directly.

  • Amanda October 24, 2015, 4:56 pm

    Hi Alison,

    I’ve been renting a flat in Paris for a little over 1 year. I received the tax habitation and I immediately paid it, and sent the e-receipt to my landlady to let her know that it’s been paid. She immediately began to harrass me via all forms of communication – she was angry that I had paid it (even though it had my name on the bill) and said that she paid it already. I have a sneaking feeling that she has not registered with the government that she is renting the flat. I am moving out in 2 weeks, and I am afraid that she will “punish” me by withholding my deposit. So this leaves me with two questions: (1) If I was going to report her to the authorities, who should I contact? and (2) Since we both paid the tax habitation, should I ask for my money back from the government, and if so, how? Thank you!

    • Allison Lounes October 24, 2015, 5:25 pm

      Go to the tax office and ask. Is it a furnished rental? Furnished rental taxe d’habitation is often paid by the landlord.

  • Ying Ying Ma November 2, 2015, 3:29 am

    Hi Allison

    I just recently secure a room from Nest Pick and the landlord just contact me and she claimed that she usually make a lawyer write the contract, and therefore ask the tenant for the contract fees (200 euros) beforehand. I’m not too sure about whether I should be paying for the contract or not? Or whether it another scam from internet?

    Thank you very much for your help.



    • Allison Lounes November 2, 2015, 1:15 pm

      If you’re renting directly from the landlord, they can’t charge you fees for writing the lease. If you’re renting from an agency, they can charge you part of the fees for having it drawn up by a lawyer, but you don’t pay until you sign the lease.

      If they’re asking for money beforehand, that’s a big red flag.

  • Rachael November 23, 2015, 11:49 pm

    So if I’ve been living in a flat for five months and the hob top cooker suddenly starts blowing the circuit breaker all the time, it’s up to the landlord (via the agency – Foncia) to pay for an electrician to come out, even if it’s written into the contract that I am responsible for repairs? It seemed very odd to me that I had to pay to fix something I didn’t break.

    And if I have ongoing repairs that aren’t being taken care of despite numerous emails and trips to their office (bathroom repairs and front door to the building) can I say: give me a response and take care of it, please and thank you, otherwise I will contact… DALO? la mairie? and see about getting advice and having them hold my rent payments until it’s taken care of? It’s been months and I’m tired of absolutely nothing getting done.

    Thank you so much for this article. Very helpful.

    • Allison Lounes November 25, 2015, 2:21 pm

      Yes, contact the mairie, and no, they can’t make you pay for something you didn’t break. That’s ‘normal wear and tear’ and up to them to replace.

      You can’t legally withhold your rent payments. DALO or the Mairie should be able to help you set up an escrow account, and guide you to pay your rent into that until the issues are resolved.

      The front door to the building might be more complicated, though – as that’s the responsability of the whole syndic, not just your landlord.

  • Sarah March 5, 2016, 8:59 pm

    hi there, i am renting in antibes and its sort of under the table I have been here since september and asked my landlord to give me a proper lease he has refused and said I have to leave i have been here for 7 months someone just told me I can say I must have an agreement and he is obliged to give me one is this true, its furnished

    • Allison Lounes March 6, 2016, 1:24 pm

      Yes, he is required to give you a proper lease and receipts for your rent payments called ‘quittances de loyer’. He cannot kick you out. If he tries, go to the police and to the mairie to the ADIL. They’ll be able to get you legal help.

  • Peter March 22, 2016, 4:04 pm

    Hi Allison,

    I am owner of apartment near Paris. I was on vacation when I got letter from Foncia (agency which suppose to manage the property) but I could not receive it as I wasn’t home, right 🙂 so now they charge me for 45 euros for re-sending the letter stating if I wont pay, they will send another bill for 70 euros. Is it legal, do I need to really pay? Thank you.

    • Allison Lounes March 23, 2016, 1:53 pm

      Doesn’t sound legal to me, but I’m not a lawyer. What was the letter about?

  • Britt April 12, 2016, 9:45 am

    Hi Allison,

    I think your site is great! Thanks for all of your advice. It has certainly been helpful. I’m currently experiencing some issues with my old landlord or FONCIA I should say. Seems like they’re a problem agency for everyone. I moved out of my old place (unfurnished apt) with a one month notice as the apartment was covered in mold and affecting my health. I’d gone back and forth with the agency about the problem for weeks with no result to the issue and told them that I needed to move as the mold was affecting my health. No response of course. I finally decided to move and sent them a letter a month in advance stating all of the issues of the apartment and why I found it necessary to move. I do have a doctor’s note but I didn’t supply it with the letter (didn’t know I had to). No response of course until a couple of weeks later when they told me I could set up an appointment to give the keys. Long story short they are no requesting that I pay for the additional 2 months of rent although I’ve moved out and have supplied them with my keys.

    • Allison Lounes April 12, 2016, 5:02 pm

      Where do you live? In Paris and the surrounding areas the notice period for any apartment is 1 month.

  • Anne April 13, 2016, 10:59 am

    Hi Allison,

    My husband and I lived in a small furnished studio in Paris for close to 5 years. We moved out a little over a month ago and have been battling our landlady ever since. Our first issue arose when she demanded payment for the outstanding EDF bill- 2 years worth. I am really frustrated with how she has dealt with this billing for the whole time we lived there. She would text us saying “I need to be reimbursed for EDF” (which had been in her name), we would say “no problem, can you just send us the amount or a copy of the bill?” and she would usually comply. However, over the last couple of years when we would ask for the amount or a copy of the bill, she would disappear off the face of the earth. I couldn’t believe she had the gall to be mad at us for not paying for two years when we had always wanted to pay, but she had been negligent in letting us know what the amount was. What rights do we have when the EDF was always in her name and it was her responsibility to inform us of the amount?

    During the etat de lieux she became very frustrated with the condition of all the furniture, saying “everything was new when I purchased it” and that she couldn’t believe it didn’t still look new. As I said, we lived there for close to five years, and while we did the best we could to take care of the items, naturally things got a little bit worn. She bought the cheapest things possible from IKEA and is claiming that those items are high quality enough to withstand normal wear and tear.

    A week or two after we moved she called us and screamed at us about ruining the toilet. She accused us of trying to flush paint and stated that she would have to replace the toilet entirely. I assure you that we didn’t and wouldn’t ever do such a thing… She’s now charging us for a “deep cleaning”. Is she allowed to do this?

    Finally, all of this has me extremely concerned about the security deposit. My solution is to inform her that she can keep the security deposit, subtract the money for the few items that we did end up breaking (a few plates, glasses, some chairs), and then ask for the remainder of what we owe for the EDF. I feel like this is the only way we’ll get any value of the security deposit, if that makes sense. I am pretty positive that we have no hope of seeing the money returned to us at all.

    What exactly can we do to negotiate this situation? Thank you for any advice you can give.

    • Allison Lounes April 13, 2016, 5:41 pm

      1) She has the right to request payment of back utilities going back up to 5 years, but she has to show you the bills.

      2) Re: ‘It was new when I bought it’: Isn’t that usually how it works?!

      3) Any repairs she does she has to provide bills or devis with the amounts

      4) She is supposed to return the security deposit within 1 month or must start paying interest, so I’d send her a registered letter informing her of your rights, requesting devis/bills for repairs, and threatening legal action.

      I can help you with this, but my fee might not be worth it to you depending on how much the security deposit is. Please email me at allison at if you’d like a quote for the letter and followup.

  • jish December 1, 2016, 3:18 am

    Hi Allison,

    wondering if you can offer any advice as I’m not quite sure what else to do! I had a small but constant leak in my bathroom ceiling that was coming from the upstairs neighbours heater (which is part of the building and included in the rent). (the apartment was unfurnished and in Levallois, suburb in ile de france)
    I informed my insurance company and the agency I rented the apartment from (who didn’t want to hear anything and told me it was my problem) and I filled out a constat amiable with my upstairs neighbour and sent it to the agency, my insurance company and the syndic of the building. The syndic sent someone to repair the leak and my insurance company sent someone to look at the ceiling and organise a quote to repair it. Whilst this was happening, I gave my notice as I was leaving France. I have since left, the etat des lieux de sortie went fine, everything was signed off and they sent me the cheque for my caution. I have now started receiving emails from my agency telling me that I have to pay for the ceiling to be repaired because my insurance company is saying that because I left before the work was done, they are no longer liable to pay. The agency is also saying that I could be liable to pay them lost rent and fees if I don’t pay for the repairs, because they cant rent the apartment in the meantime. I find this ridiculous that I should be liable as this work shouldn’t stop them renting the apartment and I don’t feel I should have to pay anything as it should be either my insurance or the insurance of the syndic or owner seeing as the origin of the leak was from a heater that is part of the building, so the syndics responsibility. Also, I have left the apartment and it should no longer be my problem.
    Can they take the money from my account or force me to pay in any way? if I just leave it and stop responding, can they do anything ? I live in New Zealand now so I don’t see how they could send a bailiff all the way here from France especially for something like 300 euros!

    appreciate any advice you can give me.

    • Allison Lounes December 1, 2016, 1:50 pm

      They cannot take money from your account nor force you to pay in any way. Once you give your notice, it’s normal that your insurance stops covering the issue and it becomes the responsibility of the building’s insurance.

  • * December 6, 2016, 5:02 am


    I rented an apartment in Paris last fall and I paid an deposit to my landlord. When I moved out my landlord came to the apartment and looked it through and said everything was ok and that he would send the deposit back. I left Paris and he has now almost an entire year later yet not sent my deposit back to me he kept saying I will send it soon and now he has even stopped answering to my e-mails. What can I do in this situation?

    • Allison Lounes December 6, 2016, 3:09 pm

      You’ll need to send a registered letter to the landlord asking officially to return your security deposit and charging interest. If he still doesn’t return it, you need to contact ADIL. I can do these things on your behalf, but I’m not sure my fee will be worth it compared to the amount of money you stand to have returned.


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